The history of American conservatism has been marked by tensions and competing ideologies. Fiscal conservatives and libertarians favor small governmentlaissez-faire economy, low income and corporate taxes, limited regulation, and free enterprise.
Toryism supported a hierarchical society with a monarch who ruled by divine right. Tories opposed the idea that sovereignty derived from the people and rejected the authority of parliament and freedom of religion.
Robert Filmer 's Patriarcha: However, the Glorious Revolution of destroyed this principle to some degree by establishing a constitutional government in England, leading to the hegemony of the Tory-opposed Whig ideology. Faced with defeat, the Tories reformed their movement, now holding that sovereignty was vested in the three estates of Crown, Lords and Commons  rather than solely in the Crown.
Toryism became marginalized during the long period of Whig ascendancy in the 18th century. Edmund Burke — Conservatives typically see Richard Hooker — as the founding father of conservatism, along with the Marquess of Halifax —David Hume — and Edmund Burke — Halifax promoted pragmatism in government whilst Hume argued against political rationalism and utopianism.
He supported the American Revolution of —, but abhorred the violence of the French Revolution — He accepted the liberal ideals of private property and the economics of Adam Smith —but thought that economics should remain subordinate to the conservative social ethic, that capitalism should be subordinate to the medieval social tradition and that the business class should be subordinate to aristocracy.
He insisted on standards of honor derived from the medieval aristocratic tradition and saw the aristocracy as the nation's natural leaders. He favored an established churchbut allowed for a degree of religious toleration.
Despite their influence on future conservative thought, none of these early contributors were explicitly involved in Tory politics. Hooker lived in the 16th century, long before the advent of toryismwhilst Hume was an apolitical philosopher and Halifax similarly politically independent.
Burke described himself as a Whig. Revival[ edit ] Shortly after Burke's death inconservatism revived as a mainstream political force as the Whigs suffered a series of internal divisions.
This new generation of conservatives derived their politics not from Burke but from his predecessor, the Viscount Bolingbroke —who was a Jacobite and traditional Tory, lacking Burke's sympathies for Whiggish policies such as Catholic emancipation and American independence famously attacked by Samuel Johnson in "Taxation No Tyranny".
In the first half of the 19th century, many newspapers, magazines and journals promoted loyalist or right-wing attitudes in religion, politics and international affairs. Burke was seldom mentioned, but William Pitt the Younger — became a conspicuous hero.
The most prominent journals included The Quarterly Review, founded in as a counterweight to the Whigs' Edinburgh Review and the even more conservative Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine. Sack finds that the Quarterly Review promoted a balanced Canningite toryism as it was neutral on Catholic emancipation and only mildly critical of Nonconformist Dissent; it opposed slavery and supported the current poor laws; and it was "aggressively imperialist".
Anchoring the ultra Tories, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine stood firmly against Catholic emancipation and favoured slavery, cheap money, mercantilism, the Navigation Acts and the Holy Alliance.
The effect was to significantly strengthen conservatism as a grassroots political force. Conservatism no longer was the philosophical defense of the landed aristocracy, but had been refreshed into redefining its commitment to the ideals of order, both secular and religious, expanding imperialism, strengthened monarchy and a more generous vision of the welfare state as opposed to the punitive vision of the Whigs and liberals.
Although conservatives opposed attempts to allow greater representation of the middle class in parliament, they conceded that electoral reform could not be reversed and promised to support further reforms so long as they did not erode the institutions of church and state.
These new principles were presented in the Tamworth Manifesto ofwhich historians regard as the basic statement of the beliefs of the new Conservative Party. They saw the Anglican Church and the aristocracy as balances against commercial wealth. This marked the beginning of the transformation of British conservatism from High Tory reactionism towards a more modern form based on "conservation".
The party became known as the Conservative Party as a result, a name it has retained to this day. However, Peel would also be the root of a split in the party between the traditional Tories led by the Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli and the "Peelites" led first by Peel himself, then by the Earl of Aberdeen.
The split occurred in over the issue of free tradewhich Peel supported, versus protectionismsupported by Derby. The majority of the party sided with Derby whilst about a third split away, eventually merging with the Whigs and the radicals to form the Liberal Party.
Despite the split, the mainstream Conservative Party accepted the doctrine of free trade in In the second half of the 19th century, the Liberal Party faced political schisms, especially over Irish Home Rule.
Leader William Gladstone himself a former Peelite sought to give Ireland a degree of autonomy, a move that elements in both the left and right-wings of his party opposed.
These split off to become the Liberal Unionists led by Joseph Chamberlainforming a coalition with the Conservatives before merging with them in The Liberal Unionist influence dragged the Conservative Party towards the left as Conservative governments passing a number of progressive reforms at the turn of the 20th century.
By the late 19th century, the traditional business supporters of the Liberal Party had joined the Conservatives, making them the party of business and commerce. In the interwar period, conservatism was the major ideology in Britain    as the Liberal Party vied with the Labour Party for control of the left.
After the Second World Warthe first Labour government — under Clement Attlee embarked on a program of nationalization of industry and the promotion of social welfare.
The Conservatives generally accepted those policies until the s.Liberalism—both as a political current and an intellectual tradition—is mostly a modern phenomenon that started in the 17th century, although some liberal philosophical ideas had precursors in classical antiquity and in Imperial China.
During 19th century Europe, this had referred to those things that challenged political, social, and religious values.
Political ideas were derived from the Enlightenment, English liberties, and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. 19th-century political conservatism, on the other hand, was a reaction against these new nationalist movements and other more abstract political theories that arose out of 18th and 19th-century.
This article is part of a series on: Conservatism in the United States. Liberalism in the 19th century. As an ideology and in practice liberalism became the preeminent reform movement in Europe during the 19th century. Its fortunes, however, varied with the historical conditions in each country—the strength of the crown, the élan of the aristocracy, the pace of industrialization, and the circumstances of national unification.
One of the most important political concepts to arise from the era was the "nation-state," a union often characterized by a common language, shared historical experiences and institutions, and similar cultural traditions, including religion at both the elite and popular levels.