Review of related literature in out of school youth

In during the Former Song dynastythe Imperial Central University Zongmingguan became a comprehensive institution combining higher education and research, with five divisions: In when campus of the imperial national university was again in Fuzimiao area, Li Shandaoa scholar of the university, established another national school Lushan National Academy outside the capital city Nanking which is called Bailudong Shuyuan White Deer Grotto Academya famous academy that hosted many renowned scholars including Zhu XiLu Jiuyuan and Wang Yangming. In Nanjing University moved to Gulou and its engineering school was split and formed several independent colleges including Nanjing Institute of Technologywhich at its peak spanning 10 Li and hosting near 10, students, and around there were institutes including Qintian Jian Imperial Astronomy Institute and Taiyi Yuan Imperial Medical Institute.

Review of related literature in out of school youth

Review of related literature in out of school youth

Gender dysphoria[ edit ] Gender dysphoria is a strong, persistent discomfort and distress with one's gender, anatomy, birth sex, and even societal attitudes toward their gender variance. Body esteem of several transgender youth was measured in an interview in three categories personal satisfaction of appearance, personal satisfaction of weight, and perceived satisfaction of others of one's body appearance.

Children who experience physical abuse, verbal abuse, and sexual abuse are also more likely to identify as being gender dysphoric. This evidence is not clear as to the relationship between abuse and sexual identity in regards to which is the cause and which is the effect.

Regardless, it does show a relationship between childhood abuse and gender identity. Have marks on my body. I have things that I remember happened to me.

Transgender youth who face physical abuse may be forced to leave their homes, or choose to leave, which can be a particularly traumatic experience. The lack of housing was found to often lead to financial difficulties for such youth.

Lack of support at home and constant harassment at school may lead to academic difficulties for the youth as well, who face a much higher drop out level compared to their cisgender counterparts. Survival sex is the act of engaging in sexual activity with another individual or the act of selling sex in order to meet one's basic survival needs.

While there is an awareness of the possible dangers associated with survival sex, it is often reported that a sense Review of related literature in out of school youth pride in being able to support oneself accompanies the activity or the positivity of being able to eat and have somewhere to rest that night.

This lack of access may be due to doctors refusing to treat youth or youth fearing negative reactions from health care providers. Psychiatrists and endocrinologists are generally reluctant to provide hormone therapy to youths under 16, and obtaining sex reassignment surgery prior to the age of 18 is almost impossible in most countries.

Some of the medical professionals who are permitted to prescribe hormones include medical providers, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants. This can be potentially dangerous, and can result in a multitude of health problems for the youth, including improper pubertal growth and HIV due to contaminated needles.

Sexually transmitted infections are a large health problem for transgender teens as well, as sexual partners often do not perceive these youth as health risks, especially since male-to-female youth cannot become pregnant.

This trend of unprotected sex among the transgender population puts them at increased risk and has led to higher numbers of STIs among the group [15] However, the latest revision of the Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender Nonconforming People has addressed the needs of transgender children.

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Existing healthcare options[ edit ] When an individual is transitioning from female to male FTM or male to female MTFthere are several avenues [23] that are available to them pendant upon their financial capabilities, insurance's agreement to cover costs, and personal desire to utilize these options.

While these options do exist, many of them are labeled off limits to minors individuals under the age of One of the options that does exist for minors is the use of puberty blockers, which in were officially stated as not damaging to bone health at the Endocrine Society's 95 Annual Meeting in San Francisco.

Puberty blockers are believed to put the succession of puberty on pause and can reverse any changes that had been made.

Typically puberty blockers, which are reversible are first administered between the ages of 12—14 years of age, this is the age block because 16 years of age is believed to be too late. His work is guided by his desire to see the suicide rates amongst untreated transgender individuals go down and to keep youth from undergoing psychological trauma that can accompany puberty when they do not identify.

Spack is inspired by the research done in Dutch nations in their use of puberty blockers and affirms this choice, this affirmation stems from the fact that early administration of cross sex hormones causes stunts in growth, issues of infertility, and other health issues.

When this procedure of puberty blockers and cross sex hormones are followed, transitional surgery is then granted upon turning 18 years old. For those wishing to transition from male to female, options consist of facial feminisation surgery, vaginoplasty, breast augmentation surgery, and cross-sex hormones.

Review of related literature in out of school youth

For those wishing to transition from female to male, options consist of penile construction surgery, breast reduction surgery, and cross- sex hormones.

In the United States to change an individual's existing gender marker and name, visits must be made to change the driver's licensesocial security cardbanking documents, passportthe list trails on and extensive documentation must be presented in order to change each individual item.

Several problems may be faced at schools, including verbal and physical harassment and assault, sexual harassmentsocial exclusion and isolation, and other interpersonal problems with peers. Transgender students were much more likely than their peers to report harassment, assault, and feeling unsafe in school settings.

Larger schools tend to have safer climates for transgender students, as do schools with more low income and religious and ethnic minorities. A majority of these students also reported physical harassment at school, with nearly half reporting that they had been punched, kicked, or injured with a weapon.

They frequently reported fear an anxiety about using these facilities at school because of experiences of harassment by both peers and adults when using them. Negative comments about gender presentation may be frequently overheard in these places, and surveyed students have reported being "pushed around," "getting the crap beat out of them," and "getting their asses kicked" by peers.

Only a third of transgender students who reported victimization to school staff members feel that their situation was taken care of adequately and effectively. The other two thirds often run into situations where the school staff members blame the victimized students. One student, when reporting bullying, said that they were told "that I need to stop flaunting my sexuality".Chapter II: Review of Related Literature History of School Papers In the public high schools in the City of Manila, school newspapers were published as early as , although records show that The Coconut, a mimeographed copy and edited by Carlos P.

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Romulo came out in the school year Nanjing University (NJU or NU, sometimes Nanking University, simplified Chinese: 南京大学; traditional Chinese: 南京大學; pinyin: Nánjīng Dàxué, Nánkīng Tàhsüéh), known as Nanda (南大; pinyin: Nándà), is a major public university, the oldest institution of higher learning in Nanjing, China, and a member of the elite C9 League of Chinese universities.

Youth Antisocial and Violent Behavior 3 Prevention of Antisocial and Violent Behavior in Youth: A Review of the Literature Over the past decade, youth antisocial and violent behavior has become a.

A Literature Map of Dropout Prevention Interventions for Students With Disabilities Executive Summary Overview Dropping out of school has serious negative outcomes for youth. 1 Migration and Filipino Children Left-Behind: A Literature Review By: Melanie M.

Reyes Miriam College – Women and Gender Institute (WAGI) for the. CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies Foreign Literature Student Performance Galiher () and Darling (), used GPA to measure student performance because the main focus in the student performance for the particular semester.