Ethiopia has a general elevation ranging from 1, to 3, meters above sea level. Interspersed on the landscape are higher mountain ranges and cratered cones, the highest of which, at 4, meters, is Ras Dashen Terara northeast of Gonder.
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Introduction The term Sahel an Arabic word for shore is used to refer to the semi-arid zone to the south of Sahara desert. Climatologically, the Sahel is characterized by frequent droughts - low, poorly distributed and highly variable monthly and seasonal unpredictable rainfall.
It is the easternmost extension of African land and for the purposes of this article is defined as the region that is home to the countries of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia, whose cultures have been linked throughout their long history. Other definitions. Unifruit Ethiopia Environmental & Social Impact Assessment Report: Raya Valley i Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report Tigray Region Raya Azebo District. Cities, towns & villages in Oromiya; Name: Description: Show: Sēru: Seru is a town in south-eastern Ethiopia. Seru is also capital of one of the 22 districts of Arsi zone, Located in the Arsi Zone of the Oromia Region, this town has a latitude and longitude of 07°40′N 40°12′E / °N °E with an elevation of meters above sea level.
Arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid zones are characterized by, low and erratic rainfall that does not exceed mm per annum, periodic droughts, and different combinations of vegetational cover and soils.
Regarding livelihoods systems, generally speaking, light pastoral use is possible in arid areas whilst rain-fed agriculture is not usually possible. In semi-arid areas agricultural harvests are likely to be irregular, although grazing is satisfactory[3,4]. The dry sub-humid areas receive higher amounts of rainfall than the other categories of drylands which can reach more than mm annually.
Drylands are characterized by high maximum temperatures and large temperature differences between day and night.
Other climatic characteristics include strong winds, and low humidity. These are reflected in an increased vapour pressure deficit with implications for water use efficiency, transpiration, and evaporation. Drylands are frequently subjected to drought which is the main limiting factor on biomass production and crop yields.
Human induced factors such as overcultivation, overgrazing and other forms of inappropriate land use, when practiced under the conditions prevailing in the drylands, may result in significant degradation of vegetation and, soil leaching and in many cases, in desertification.
Data for this study was derived from both primary data observation and secondary data or a review of relevant literature, and a compilation of other available information on drought trends as reflected in rainfall trends in the study area, and on trends concerning the productivity of natural resources in the wider context of land degradation and desertification.
Information was also compiled from existing records on rainfall, forest land cover, forest stocking, rangelands and carrying capacity and on agricultural productivity and population trends.
Dryland Problems Many drylands show clear evidence of environmental degradation. Drought and unreliable and variable rains are a recurrent problem. Even without climate change, the drylands face a daunting array of threats including population pressure, social changes such as the settlement of traditionally nomadic peoples, and exploitive agricultural and grazing practices that increase deforestation, soil erosion, salinization and water depletion.
Land degradation and desertification conistitute one of the most serious environmental problems facing the world today. Desertification threatens the drylands of Sub-Saharan Africa more than any other region in the world.
Once the vegetational cover is removed, the fragile soils are exposed to winds and battering rains. Early storms are often accompanied by strong winds. According to, blowing sand subjects seedlings to abrasion and often results in their being completely covered by sand, causing serious problems for crop establishment.
Desertification has been described as self-propagating and it feeds on itself as expanding areas become useless for crops or livestock, whilst the pressure on the islands of remaining fertile land that remain increases.
Farming is taken beyond the limits of sustainable rain-fed agriculture.
Whole families, sometimes whole villages, migrate to better-watered areas. Examples of dryland degradation include salinization and the loss of vegetation or water resources. One of the greatest threats is desertification, which robs the land of its soil, biodiversity, and productivity.
The spread of desertification results in a degraded landscape. Millions of people may be forced to leave the land when it can no longer sustain them. Pressures from human and livestock populations coupled with the effects of recurrent drought have led to a serious degradation of vegetational cover, erosion, and the depletion of soil fertility on a large scale in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa.
Land Degradation Land degradation is, usually, the result of complex inter-relationships between biophysical and socio-economic issues which affect many people and their land, specially in the tropics and developing countries.
The term land degradation involves both soil and vegetation degradation. Soil degradation refers to negative changes in the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil, whereas vegetation degradation is the reduction in the number of species and the vegetational composition.
Usually land degradation is described in terms of the loss in natural resources soil, water, fauna and flora or in the biophysical process by which it functions. Soil can be eroded, salinized or impoverished. Water can be lost through evapotranspiration, evaporation, infiltration, run-off, pollution, or overuse.
As habitats diminish, so also do the abundance, uniqueness and diversity of living things[9,10].Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country situated in the Horn of pfmlures.com has one of the most extensive known histories as an independent nation on the continent, or indeed in the world, and is also one of the founders of the United pfmlures.com among African countries, Ethiopia maintained independence .
This book brings together information on the contrasting characteristics, condition, present use and problems of the world's main natural grasslands. Since grassland is commercialized through the grazing animal, particular attention is paid to the livestock production systems associated with each main type.
Grazing resources are more than . Unifruit Ethiopia Environmental & Social Impact Assessment Report: Raya Valley i Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report Tigray Region Raya Azebo District. Ethiopia’s pledge to restore a further 15m hectares of degraded land was the largest of many made at the end of UN secretary general Ban Ki-moon’s New York climate summit last month, where.
Review of Pastoral Rangeland Enclosures in Ethiopia In Harshin, Kebribaya and Jijiga, much of the land and vegetation resources needs to be thoroughly assessed. Advocacy work is . Land and Resources, Plants and Animals desert shrubs, tropical zone, hippopotamus, temperate zone, jackal.
The great variations in elevation are directly reflected in the kind of vegetation found in Ethiopia.