Developmental Competencies, Challenges, and Developmentally Appropriate Interventions for Early to Late Childhood Examine the developmental competencies of children during early, middle, and late childhood. Design developmentally appropriate interventions to assist children and their parents.
Gender Development in Late Adulthood Late adulthood old age is generally considered to begin at about age Erik Erikson suggests that at this time it is important to find meaning and satisfaction in life rather than to become bitter and disillusioned, that is, to resolve the conflict of integrity vs.
Despite the problems associated with longevity, studies of people in their 70s have shown that growing old is not necessarily synonymous with substantial mental or physical deterioration.
Many older people are happy and engaged in a variety of activities. Gerontology, an interdisciplinary field that studies the process of aging and the aging population, involves psychology, biology, sociology, and other fields.
Theories of successful aging. Theories of successful aging include the following: The disengagement theory states that as people age, their withdrawal from society is normal and desirable as it relieves them of responsibilities and roles that have become difficult.
Proponents of this theory believe that activities of earlier years should be maintained as long as possible. Ageism may be defined as the prejudice or discrimination that occurs on the basis of age.
Although it can be used against people of all ages, older people are most frequently its target and it may often result in forced retirement.
People typically reach the peak of their physical strength and endurance during their twenties and then gradually decline. In later adulthood, a variety of physiological changes may occur, including some degree of atrophy of the brain and a decrease in the rate of neural processes.
The respiratory and circulatory systems are less efficient, and changes in the gastrointestinal tract may lead to increased constipation.
Bone mass diminishes, especially among women, leading to bone density disorders such as osteoporosis. Muscles become weaker unless exercise programs are followed. The skin dries and becomes less flexible. Hair loss occurs in both sexes. There is also decreased sensitivity in all of the sensory modalities, including olfaction, taste, touch, hearing, and vision.
The study of cognitive changes in the older population is complex. Intellectual changes in late adulthood do not always result in reduction of ability.
While fluid intelligence the ability to see and to use patterns and relationships to solve problems does decline in later years, crystallized intelligence the ability to use accumulated information to solve problems and make decisions has been shown to rise slightly over the entire life span.
Dementias are usually responsible for cognitive defects seen in older people. Retirement at age 65 is the conventional choice for many people, although some work until much later.
People have been found to be happier in retirement if they are not forced to retire before they are ready and if they have enough income to maintain an adequate living standard. Chronic health problems such as arthritis, rheumatism, and hypertension increasingly interfere with the quality of life of most individuals as they age.
Women tend to marry men older than they are and, on average, live 5 to 7 years longer than men.Development in Late Adulthood Erik Erikson suggests that at this time it is important to find meaning and satisfaction in life rather than to become bitter and disillusioned, that is, to resolve the conflict of integrity vs.
despair. Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development include trust vs. mistrust, According to psychosocial theory, we experience eight stages of development over our lifespan, from infancy through late adulthood. At each stage there is a crisis or task that we need to resolve.
Growth and Development.
STUDY. PLAY. Age Specific Competencies. type of competency that HC workers give patients according to: Chronological age-Developmental age-Maturity level. (Developmental characteristics) Late Adulthood-Must adjust to: Menopause-Retirement/redirect goals. This is “Late Adulthood: Aging, Retiring, and Bereavement”, The development of the person: The Minnesota study of risk and adaptation from birth to adulthood.
New York, NY: Guilford Press. Responding to the challenges of late life: Strategies for maintaining and enhancing competence. New York, NY: Springer Publishing.
The passage to adulthood: Challenges of late adolescence THERE ARE MAJOR developmental changes and challenges associ-ated with the period of adolescence, as youth acquire and consoli-date the competencies, attitudes, . Challenges of Adulthood.
Challenges of FASD in the Transition to Adulthood. All young people face challenges in moving from adolescence to adulthood.