How do you employ the tactic to get the best deal for the government? You may have to go through an approval process before finalizing the negotiated agreement. You may have instructions to consult with a higher-up before you finalize the deal. These people or committees will be the ambiguous authorities you will defer to if you elect to use this tactic.
Blau and Richard M. Emerson, who in addition to Homans are generally thought of as the major developers of the exchange perspective within sociology.
Although there are various modes of exchange, Homans centered his studies on dyadic exchange. When one finds they are rewarded for their actions, they tend to repeat the action.
The more often a particular stimulus has resulted in a reward in the past, the more likely it is that a person will respond to it.
The more often in the recent past a person has received a particular reward, the less valuable any further unit of that reward becomes. Peter Blau focused his early writings on social exchange theory more towards the economic and utilitarian perspective, whereas Homans focused on reinforcement principles which presuppose individuals base their next social move on past experiences.
Blau's utilitarian focus encouraged the theorist to look forward, as in what they anticipated the reward would be in regards to their next social interaction. Homans believed that social exchange theory was based on reinforcement principles.
According to Emerson, Exchange is not a theory, but a framework from which other theories can converge and be compared to structural functionalism. To him, the meaning of individual self-interest is a combination of economic and psychological needs.
They developed a theoretical framework based on the interdependence of actors. They also highlighted social implications of different forms of interdependence such as reciprocal control. The study of the theory from the microeconomics perspective is attributed to Blau.
Blau stated that once this concept is understood, it is possible to observe social exchanges everywhere, not only in market relations, but also in other social relations like friendship. The major difference between social and economic exchange is the nature of the exchange between parties.
Neoclassic economic theory views the actor as dealing not with another actor but with a market and environmental parameters, such as market price. The elements of relational life include: Costs are the elements of relational life that have negative value to a person, such as the effort put into a relationship and the negatives of a partner.
Rewards are the elements of a relationship that have positive value. Rewards can be sense of acceptance, support, and companionship etc. As with everything dealing with the social exchange theory, it has as its outcome satisfaction and dependence of relationships.
The social-exchange perspective argues that people calculate the overall worth of a particular relationship by subtracting its costs from the rewards it provides. On the contrary, a negative number indicates a negative relationship.
The worth of a relationship influences its outcome, or whether people will continue with a relationship or terminate it.
Positive relationships are expected to endure, whereas negative relationships will probably terminate. In a mutually beneficial exchange, each party supplies the wants of the other party at lower cost to self than the value of the resources the other party provides.
In such a model, mutual relationship satisfaction ensures relationship stability.
The "satisfactory-ness" of the rewards that a party gains from an exchange relationship is judged relative to some standard, which may vary from party to party. These changes can occur over a person's life course through the various relationships, opportunities and means of support.Basic Concepts.
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