Mon, Nov 05 Although the new party boss would be instated during the national congress, it will not be until next spring that the current head of state will hand over the reins to his successor.
The Ming and the Qing China has outstanding naval capacity in the early s see the discussion of the Ming voyages in the unit Ming Voyages: The Chinese political and social order is at its height in this "late imperial" period of the last two dynasties: Scholar-gentry, residing at home as they study for the next level of examination or await official appointment, support the work of the appointed district magistrate who, by regulation, cannot be from the district and form one elite class of Confucian literati that governs China.
By the s the Chinese governmental practice in general, and civil service examination system in particular, becomes a model for emulation championed by the Physiocrats and other political activists seeking to reform government in Europe, and particularly in France.
Qing imperial power is at its height under three strong emperors, who rule in succession: KangxiYongzhengand Change and continuity in the chinese history and expand the borders of Chinese territory to the greatest extent since the Han empire.
Advanced commercial development takes the place of industrial development in China: The mainland of China forms a natural unit almost cut off by mountains and desert from the Eurasian land mass to the west and south.
Its size and the political unity that prevails for much of its late imperial history promote interregional trade within China.
The absence of trade barriers within this unified country and the existence of a vast and varied geography mean that shortages in one part of China can be made up through trade with another.
Similarly, labor needs in one area can be filled by migration or by shifting manufacture to another area. Geographic factors that facilitate this internal trade are the Yangtze River, the complex network of rivers in the south, and China's long coastline. China thus never feels pressure to develop labor-saving technologies or to engage in extensive expansionist or colonizing activities, in contrast to the West and Japan.
Contrast with the political and economic history of Europe, where the existence of many small countries leads to trade barriers and local shortages, prompting individual countries to pursue technological advances, wage costly wars, and engage in imperialism.
A primitive national market, remarkable given China's vast territory, exists in certain essential commodities such as grain, cotton, and tea.
The Chinese state does not control commercial development. Responsible for popular welfare, it emphasizes the production of staple food crops; merchants are viewed as unproductive and constitute the lowest class in the traditional Confucian hierarchy.
From the Tang dynasty onward, however, with growing population and expansion of territory, state control of the economy is gradually reduced.
Except for strategic goods like salt and certain metals like copper and lead needed for currency, the state does little to control commerce. This contrasts with European states where cities are required to be chartered by the royal house, and with Japan, where cities are allowed to develop only in the castle towns of the daimyo and in Osaka, Kyoto, and Tokyo, which has special functions in the central government.
Moreover, the Chinese government does not rely very heavily on commercial taxation; its main source of income is land and salt taxes. This contrasts with Western Europe where government taxes on commerce are heavy.
This environment fosters the development of an intricate market network which extends deep into the countryside and which is comprised of periodic village markets with links to regional markets. A number of factors, including China's size, the difficulties involved in conducting long-distance trade using metal currencies, and the minor role played by government in regulating the economy — help explain why China is the first country to develop paper money, sophisticated brokerage practices, and banking institutions.China: The Ming () and the Qing () Its size and the political unity that prevails for much of its late imperial history promote interregional trade within China.
The absence of trade barriers within this unified country and the existence of a vast and varied geography mean that shortages in one part of China can be made up.
Change & Continuity within China Covering the Shang, Zhou Qin, and Han Dynasties Development of social structures.
- In the Shang Dynasty ( BCE - BCE), most of the land was owned by the King and nobles. But the background situations in history, such as the receptivity of a culture to an idea, can and do change over time.
In describing a culture, it does not suffice to inventory it; we have to chart its differences as it moves through time. Dealing with continuity and change over time in world history often invites students to make active use of more general periodization, to contribute a framework for more specific changes in, say, trade patterns or cultural contacts.
Change and Continuity in British History Eric Hobsbawm has recently been honoured with a second Festschrift, The Power of the Past, edited by Pat Thane, Geoffrey Crossick and Roderick Floud, an appropriately unusual distinction for an unusually distinguished historian. Chinese Language and Culture; French Language and Culture The Continuity and Change-Over-Time Question: Teaching Techniques Question: Teaching Techniques How can we help our students see the past in terms of processes of change and continuity?
Most history teachers want their .