Her first research was a questionnaire she developed for the members of her graduating class from Smith College.
Betty Friedan The Feminine Mystique begins with an introduction describing what Friedan called "the problem that has no name"—the widespread unhappiness of women in the s and early s.
It discusses the lives of several housewives from around the United States who were unhappy despite living in material comfort and being married with children.
The detrimental effects induced by this image was that it narrowed women into the domestic sphere and led many women to lose their own identities. Friedan points out that the average age of marriage was dropping, the portion of women attending college was decreasing and the birthrate was increasing for women throughout the s, yet the widespread trend of unhappy women persisted, although American culture insisted that fulfillment for women could be found in marriage and housewifery.
Although aware of and sharing this dissatisfaction, women in the s misinterpreted it as an individual problem and rarely talked about it with other women. As Friedan pointed out, "part of the strange newness of the problem is that it cannot be understood in terms of the age-old material problems of man: Friedan states that the editorial decisions concerning women's magazines at the time were being made mostly by men, who insisted on stories and articles that showed women as either happy housewives or unhappy careerists, thus creating the "feminine mystique"—the idea that women were naturally fulfilled by devoting their lives to being housewives and mothers.
Friedan also states that this is in contrast to the s, at which time women's magazines often featured confident and independent heroines, many of whom were involved in careers.
Friedan recalls her own decision to conform to society's expectations by giving up her promising career in psychology to raise children, and shows that other young women still struggled with the same kind of decision.
Many women dropped out of school early to marry, afraid that if they waited too long or became too educated, they would not be able to attract a husband.
Friedan argues at the end of the chapter that although theorists discuss how men need to find their identity, women are expected to be autonomous.
She states, "Anatomy is woman's destiny, say the theorists of femininity; the identity of woman is determined by her biology. She argues, "In a sense that goes beyond any woman's life, I think this is a crisis of women growing up—a turning point from an immaturity that has been called femininity to full human identity.
Friedan discusses early American feminists and how they fought against the assumption that the proper role of a woman was to be solely a wife and mother. She notes that they secured important rights for women, including education, the right to pursue a career, and the right to vote.
In this chapter, called "The Sexual Solipsism of Sigmund Freud", Friedan, who had a degree in psychology, criticizes Sigmund Freud whose ideas were very influential in America at the time of her book's publication.
She notes that Freud saw women as childlike and as destined to be housewives, once pointing out that Freud wrote, "I believe that all reforming action in law and education would break down in front of the fact that, long before the age at which a man can earn a position in society, Nature has determined woman's destiny through beauty, charm, and sweetness.
Law and custom have much to give women that has been withheld from them, but the position of women will surely be what it is: Friedan criticizes functionalismwhich attempted to make the social sciences more credible by studying the institutions of society as if they were parts of a social body, as in biology.
Institutions were studied in terms of their function in society, and women were confined to their sexual biological roles as housewives and mothers as well as being told that doing otherwise would upset the social balance.
Friedan points out that this is unproven and that Margaret Meada prominent functionalist, had a flourishing career as an anthropologist.
Friedan discusses the change in women's education from the s to the early s, in which many women's schools concentrated on non-challenging classes that focused mostly on marriage, family, and other subjects deemed suitable for women, as educators influenced by functionalism felt that too much education would spoil women's femininity and capacity for sexual fulfillment.
Friedan says that this change in education arrested girls in their emotional development at a young age, because they never had to face the painful identity crisis and subsequent maturation that comes from dealing with many adult challenges.
Friedan notes that the uncertainties and fears during World War II and the Cold War made Americans long for the comfort of home, so they tried to create an idealized home life with the father as breadwinner and the mother as housewife.
Yet as Friedan shows, later studies found that overbearing mothers, not careerists, were the ones who raised maladjusted children. Friedan shows that advertisers tried to encourage housewives to think of themselves as professionals who needed many specialized products in order to do their jobs, while discouraging housewives from having actual careers, since that would mean they would not spend as much time and effort on housework and therefore would not buy as many household products, cutting into advertisers' profits.
Friedan interviews several full-time housewives, finding that although they are not fulfilled by their housework, they are all extremely busy with it. She postulates that these women unconsciously stretch their home duties to fill the time available, because the feminine mystique has taught women that this is their role, and if they ever complete their tasks they will become unneeded.
Friedan notes that many housewives have sought fulfillment in sex, unable to find it in housework and children; Friedan notes that sex cannot fulfill all of a person's needs, and that attempts to make it do so often drive married women to have affairs or drive their husbands away as they become obsessed with sex.
Friedan discusses the fact that many children have lost interest in life or emotional growth, attributing the change to the mother's own lack of fulfillment, a side effect of the feminine mystique.
When the mother lacks a self, Friedan notes, she often tries to live through her children, causing the children to lose their own sense of themselves as separate human beings with their own lives. Friedan discusses Abraham Maslow 's hierarchy of needs and notes that women have been trapped at the basic, physiological level, expected to find their identity through their sexual role alone.
Friedan says that women need meaningful work just as men do to achieve self-actualization, the highest level on the hierarchy of needs.Kate Millett is an American feminist writer, artist, and activist.
Her most recent books are Mother Millett, A.D.: A Memoir, and The Politics of Cruelty: An Essay on the Literature of Political pfmlures.com is director of the Millett Center for the Arts and lives in New York City and upstate New York.
Start studying US History Chapter 30 Betty Friedan The Feminine Mystique. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
written by Betty Friedan, journalist and mother of three children Even though society dictated the importance of motherhood and housework - women wanted to explore their own . Worldview.
if you were teaching this class, how would you define the term Worldview? Del Tackett of Focus on the Family writes: “A recent nationwide survey completed by the Barna Research Group determined that only 4 percent of Americans had a “biblical” worldview.
The #1 international best seller In Lean In, Sheryl Sandberg reignited the conversation around women in the workplace. Sandberg is chief operating officer of Facebook and coauthor of Option B with Adam pfmlures.com , she gave an electrifying TED talk in which she described how women unintentionally hold themselves back in their careers.
The history of feminism comprises the narratives (chronological or thematic) of the movements and ideologies which have aimed at equal rights for pfmlures.com feminists around the world have differed in causes, goals, and intentions depending on time, culture, and country, most Western feminist historians assert that all movements that work to obtain women's rights should be considered [by whom.
Modern Parenthood. Roles of Moms and Dads Converge as They Balance Work and Family. The way mothers and fathers spend their time has changed dramatically in the past half century.