History of immigration to the United States Immigrants on ocean steamer passing the Statue of Liberty, New York City, American immigration history can be viewed in four epochs: Each period brought distinct national groups, races and ethnicities to the United States.
The Refugee Act of defines a refugee as a person who has left the country in which he or she last lived and is unable to return to that country "because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.
A country ruled by the people, rather than a king. A system of servitude in which a peasant is bound to the soil he tills and is subject to the authority of his lord.
From toAustria-Hungary experienced increasing domestic difficulties. Having many nationalities under one central rule was a serious problem. The Czechs and South Slavs demanded to govern themselves, and the Magyars severely restricted the rights of the Slavs, Slovaks, and Croats.
Besides, new political movements had grown with the rise of industrialism the change from a farm-based economy to an economic system based on the manufacturing of goods and distribution of services on an organized and mass-produced basis.
By the end of the nineteenth century the new middle class and the working class were finding voice; many were advocating some form of socialism, a political and economic system that does away with private property, placing the nation's manufacture and distribution of goods into the hands of all the people, or the state as their representative.
The Habsburgs responded by granting universal suffrage right to vote inbut then took to ruling by decree, thereby choking off further reforms. Immigration from the empire begins After the dual monarchy was established, Austria-Hungary permitted anyone in its realm who wished to leave to do so, setting off a mass migration to the United States.
The Poles who were living under Austria-Hungary in also began to emigrate by the thousands. See section on Poland later in this chapter.
By the early twentieth century, Austria-Hungary was losing its struggle to remain a world power.
In Austria annexed the heavily Serbian area of Bosnia-Herzegovina, infuriating the new kingdom of Serbia. On June 18,at Sarajevo in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbian patriots assassinated the Habsburg Archduke Francis Ferdinand —nephew of the emperor and heir to the Austrian throne.
Their act set off World War I. After the defeat of the Central Powers and the collapse of their empires at the war's end inAustria was reduced to its German-speaking sections and proclaimed a republic.
The mass migration In the turmoil of the last century of the Habsburg rule between andsomewhere between 3. The emigrants were Czechs, Slavs, Slovaks, Ukrainians, Poles, Magyars, Austrians, and others, and they left for reasons ranging from persecution or bad crops at home to hopes of a better life in America.
Since they were not one national group but many, they scattered, establishing communities within the United States by national groups. Czechs and Slovaks The Czechs, whose kingdom of Bohemia had been taken over by the Austrian Empire hundreds of years before, had long been dissatisfied with the Habsburg rule.
The Czechs were a Slavic people from Bohemia, Moravia, and parts of Silesia, and the majority were Catholics, though there were Protestants and Jews among them. They were reorganized as the Czech Legion, which fought on the Russian side.
During the war, the Czechs joined with the Slovaks and other suppressed nationalities of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in pushing for their own state. The Czechoslovak Republic was established in Within the new nation were at least five nationalities—Czechs, Germans, Slovaks, Moravians, and Ruthenians Ukrainians.
An estimated four hundred thousand Czechs arrived in the United States between and The next year, major Czech settlements were established in Wisconsin, especially in and around the city of Racine.
By Czech communities had been established in Chicago, St. Louis, and New York. In New York became the home of the first U.
Czech newspapers were established in several of the new communities.
The Czechs generally strove to preserve their culture and language. In many of the towns where they settled, little English was spoken. The Slovaks in Hungary immigrated to the United States in large numbers. They had been oppressed by the Magyars in Hungary and most wished to escape from the tyranny.
They also migrated to improve their circumstances. Most Slovaks who immigrated did not have professional skills appropriate to the U. After the collapse of the Soviet Union inthe Slovaks and the Czechs decided to separate. Inthey became the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.This file contains records of , passengers who arrived at the United States between through and identified their country of origin or nationality as Armenia, Finland, Galicia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Russian Poles, or Ukraine.
Michigan is a northern American state located in the Great Lakes Region of the United States. It is bordered to the south by the states of Indiana and Ohio, and by Wisconsin to the west.
U.S. cities and communities with large Polish American populations are largely concentrated in the Upper Midwestern United States, Chicago metropolitan area and the New York metropolitan area, with Wisconsin accounting for the largest number of communities with large Polish populations.
In the Origins of the Urban Crisis, Sugrue argues that methodology is important in how historians examine urban life shortly after World War II. In order to understand urban America, Sugrue uses the city of Detroit as a case study by tracing back it's pre-World .
Sep 30, · This is especially crucial for the city of Detroit, which faces its own set of unique challenges in a severely volatile economy that has the potential to lead to increase in a wide variety of crimes, making prevention methods and strategies a crucial tool for local law enforcement.
Detroit () is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the fourth-largest city in the Midwest and the largest city on the United States–Canada border. It is the seat of Wayne County, the most populous county in the state.